By Andrew Mulenga
After gaining independence from the British Empire in 1964, Zambia’s free citizens’ next step was nation-building, and one of the biggest instruments to be used was the development of an outwardly generic Zambian identity bolstered by a common national cultural heritage. Of course for a nation of more than 72 ethnicities this would be no easy undertaking.
|Zambian liberation hero, |
Simon Kapwepwe admires
(Photo- 1964 Independence
But it may perhaps be why the energetic new leadership quickly identified the importance of arts and culture as a tool, therefore, through the Department of Cultural Services it organised annual arts festivals featuring concerts and exhibitions. Among these exhibitions, two of the most notable ones to occur in the 1960s were entitled the International Art Exhibition and Wood Sculptures from Zambia respectively.
Records indicate that the International Art Exhibition or National Exhibition of Art and Culture was organised by the Livingstone Museum but showcased in Lusaka for locals and foreign guests to the independence celebrations from the 19 October to 30 November 1964.
According to the exhibition catalogue’s acknowledgments: “The International Art Exhibition was the Hon. Simon Mwansa Kapwepwe’s idea. He was responsible for promoting its existence, and the organisers were greatly encouraged by his inspiring public declaration; Culture is the backbone of a nation”. Kapwepwe, who was Minister of Home Affairs at the time, wrote an evocative Foreword for the publication and laid emphasis on national unity.
“Culture is the heritage of us all. Some may be more interested than others in the treasures of the past, but no one can fail to take pride in his country’s participation in the story of mankind as represented in carvings, sculpture, music, painting, and the other arts”, he declared. Of course his reference of the term culture here, was in line with the Oxford dictionary definition of a noun that describes: “the arts and other instances of human intellectual achievement regarded as a whole”. Kapwepwe declared that through culture humanity is in touch with the best that has been known and achieved in the world, and thus the human spirit.
|A Johannesburg model, Colleen Andrews, studies some of |
the many Zambian sculptures which have been flown to Johannesburg
for exhibition at the Adler Fielding Gallery this week
(Sunday Times 23-10-66)
“The committee responsible for the organisation of Zambia’s Independence Celebrations determined from the start that there should be an exhibition of art which would combine in one representative show styles from all places and of all times,” he continued in part “And in this context we planned to show the part that Africa has played in man’s story so far. The National Exhibition of Art and Culture will demonstrate the specific contribution of Zambia to this story. I hope that this exhibition will bring you pleasure. It will surely help us appreciate what harmony and perfection are and thus strengthen us in our determination to make them prevail. The men of culture are truly apostles of tolerance and understanding, the guardians of beauty and light, and our hope in this world for unity and concord.”
The photograph accompanying the foreword shows him clad in a loose flowing chitenge-like outer garment that resembles a Toga, covering the whole body apart from the right arm. Coupled with a pair of sandals and a majestic, well-crafted wooden staff the outfit was in itself a fashion statement, a protest perhaps against the suits donned by the former colonial masters. The attire was also something akin to that of the Kente cloth worn by Kwame Nkrumah who had lead Ghana to freedom just over five years earlier.
|Cover from the 1966 exhibition |
held at the Adler Fielding Gallery
Coming from a restrictive academic system towards locals, as a new nation, Zambia did not yet have academically trained artists or curators in the Western canon, so Frank McEwen from the Rhodes National Gallery in Salisbury, Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) was brought in to put up the display, despite the new government not seeing eye to eye with the then white supremacist south. Before coming to Africa, McEwen had lived and worked in Paris and left an important post with the British Council. Modern art giants like Picasso, Braque, Brancusi and Henry Moore were his personal friends and he often shipped their work to Rhodesia for temporary display, so bringing such a character in was no mean achievement. McEwin is also credited for rebelliously allowing children and students from African townships into the Rhodes National Gallery in Salisbury, a place that initially had race restrictions.
Nevertheless, as for the “Wood Sculptures from Zambia” exhibition, it was first shown at the Livingstone Museum, shifted to the Evelyn Hone College in Lusaka and later shipped abroad. About 30 craftsmen from only three provinces were listed by tribe; Lozi, Lunda Luvale, Mbunda, Luchazi, Toka Leya and Kwanga, but the show was still comprehensively framed as “Zambian”, such were the efforts made for the unification of a new nation. The show’s first stop abroad was of all places, South Africa again despite Kaunda and his comrades being outspoken enemies of the apartheid regime at the time. If the October, 1966, newspaper cuttings from most of South Africa’s major papers at the time are anything to go by, the show was a resounding success, it was covered in the Beeld, The Star, Rand Daily Mail and the Sunday Times.
|Cover for 1966 exhibition |
of modern Zambian sculpture
The S.A. Digest wrote: “A collection of valuable traditional Zambian sculpture is at present being exhibited in the Adler Fielding Gallery in Johannesburg. The realisation that commercialism was decreasing the standard of wood carving in the country by the Zambian Government to assemble a collection of attractive wood sculpture. The collection of more than 200 sculptures will later be flown to America for several exhibitions there before being taken to Switzerland.”
A Sunday Times headline read: “Kaunda sends S.A. collection of Zambian Sculpture”. The story itself read in part further read: “With the active encouragement of the Zambian Government’s Directorate of Cultural Services, Traditional Arts (Africa) Ltd., has been able to create a nucleus of artists whose work is attracting recognition overseas.” Traditional Arts (Africa) Ltd. was a Livingstone-based company ran by Dennis Erwin who had organised successful shows with the aid of the Livingston Museum director Reynolds.
Under the headline “Unique carving” in The Star, journalist, Mary Packer pointed out that “This exhibition shows three types of Zambian sculpture, in the first place, “classical Zambian sculpture, consisting of old pieces from the Livingstone Museum. The second part consists of contemporary sculpture that, although based on the traditional style, has new concepts. The third and last group shows examples of the mass tourism art”. But Packer seems to momentarily ignore the categorisation, granting the work a much more fetishized, aura and classification. She writes: “Startled at the outset by a gigantic carving of an all-powerful deity, one walks straight into the heart and mind of primeval Africa as symbolized by the greatest collection of Zambian sculpture ever seen here”; adding more emphasis to the works’ perceived primitiveness and ethereal quality, she describes it as “A forest of curiously superhuman shapes that challenge the eye – and chill the blood. They demonstrate the vital difference between primitive art culled from the source and its synthetic substitutes. This vast exhibition (collected from remote areas where the artists still steeped in tradition have been encouraged to continue their hereditary symbolic carvings)”. In one line, she oversimplifies the work as being produced by artists living in Zambia’s remote areas, when in fact artists such as Sililo were at the time based in Livingstone, which was already urbanised, having also served as the capital before Lusaka under Northern Rhodesia after the British South Africa Company decided to shift its administrative headquarters from Kalomo.
The foreword for these exhibition catalogues was written by the Zambian Minister of Information and Postal Services at the time, Lewis Changufu. Although Cangufu may have gone overboard eulogising Erwin for rescuing Zambian sculpture from degenerating and openly declared that the very survival of Zambian handicrafts was entirely dependent on Europe, there is no denying that serious effort and a great deal of support was being provided by government.
“I am pleased to present to you the Exhibition of Zambian Sculpture jointly sponsored by the Traditional Arts (Africa) Ltd., whose dedication to the revival of classical African sculpture has rescued some of Zambian sculpture from degenerating into low quality mass produced curio art. The survival of our traditional sculpture is largely dependent upon the European and American customers who collect African works of art. Unless efforts are made to present to them only works of good quality, there is a danger to these patrons buying anything that may be offered to them, thereby allowing bad works to go outside the country as representative of Zambian art,” stated Changufu.
“I would commend to your particular attention the work of Rainford Sililo. This artist has had a varied career, at one time producing for the tourist market at Livingstone curios as crude and as poor as those exhibited in the LEST WE FORGET section of this Exhibition. Now, under Mr. Erwin’s encouragement, he has blossomed into perhaps the leading Zambian artist and one whose work is in considerable demand. By his development alone a valuable service has been rendered to Zambia yet we are confident that there are other sculptors – and artists who are following hard on in his heels.”
And Barrie Raynolds, the Livingstone Museum director who wrote the curators note stated: “It is important that they be encouraged and guided during these formative years so that they may play their full part in shaping the cultural heritage of Zambia and in developing the art of Africa”.
It is evident that through the 1960s, the Zambian government continued to enthusiastically sponsor arts and culture. According to Cynthia Zukas, who was head of the defunct Lusaka Artists Society in the late 1960s reveals that the organisation was also generously supported by an annual government grant and much of it would be used to specifically fund an annual arts festival.
“The government was very interested in cultural development, both Kapwepwe and Kaunda were very vocal, the Department of Cultural Services had a generous grant. In addition, the first few years after independence the department also supported annual arts festivals,” said Zukas in an interview early this year. “I cannot remember when they stopped but for the first three or five years they were very good, they got off really to a very good start”.
Here, one is tempted to ponder over the words of N'Goné Fall, a Dakar-based independent curator, art critic, and consultant in cultural engineering. In an article entitled State of Emergency: culture in Africa is at a crossroads published in the autumn 2006 edition of Art South Africa, although written close to a decade ago, the words ring true to the fall out in arts and culture sponsorship not only in Zambia, but across the post-colonial African continent?
“The 1960s is remembered as a time of geographical, social and cultural breaking-down. In those busy days, African governments implemented national theatres, national museums, and national performing arts companies. Culture – well funded and privileged – was used as a weapon to fight against western imperialism,” writes Fall who is also a consultant for Senegalese and international cultural institutions as well as an associate professor at the Senghor University in Alexandria, Egypt.
“Two decades later, things started to fall apart. National touring exhibitions stopped, museums closed, funds vanished. Culture was no longer the priority. African politicians blamed it all on Structural adjustments”, she argues.
She points out that meanwhile in the west, exhibitions became really international, featuring artists from Latin America, Asia and Africa. She claims that subsequently workshops, magazines and arts festivals slightly balanced western artistic hegemony but this was not enough.
“We need to bear in mind that the African continent is lacking cultural infrastructure, art professionals, information flows and a real political commitment. The happy days of independence are over. A different context needs to questions and challenge the local and the global, websites and art centres, books, magazines, workshops and networks,” she writes in part “Culture is a vehicle for traditions and ideologies. Today the continent is passively consuming foreign cultural productions. Personally, I am sick and tired of this. We can no longer ignore the fact that African youth are being bombarded with, and stupefied by concepts, ideas and values manufactured elsewhere – all this in the name of planetary fraternity and cultural diversity. It is time to shake our minds and to consider that we are in a state of emergency”.
Although expressed more recently, Fall’s sentiments hold water and are in sync with Kapwepwe’s declaration that “Culture is the heritage of us all” some 50 odd years ago. But how far are we from the cultural vision of the founding fathers?
The arts festivals and revolving exhibitions were abandoned along with funding decades ago, the attempt at a national dress code was short-lived, and efforts for authenticity with regards traditional sculpture were all but thrown out the window, Sililo and his fellow sculptors never really made it onto the world stage. Erwin and Changufu’s attempt to rescue it went nowhere and today you have the very “tourist art” they tried to curb flooding the Sunday craft markets with works from as far flung as Kenya. Some of it is even embarrassingly displayed abroad like the cheap wooden masks that are still on display in the Zambian stand at the Expo Milan 2015 in Italy. So where are we today? Certainly far worse than the 1960s.